It is lighter than natural sand (11-16 kN/m3) and has a large shear angle (above 35℃). Blast furnace slag is a non-metallic residue usually obtained from steel plants or from the reduction of ores in a blast furnace. For more information, see, Slag cement provides higher levels of compressive strength in concrete when compared with ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete of equal cementitious materials content. It is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast furnace. Children's Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University is a multi-story, 640,000 square-foot, high-tech outpatient pavilion for pediatric services. It is estimated that for every ton of pig iron produced, the amount of slag produced is about 300 kg. Using GGBFS as a coastal protection backfill material can take advantage of its light weight and large shear angle to effectively reduce the earth pressure of the front sheet pile and reduce the sheet pile section. Slag cement generally improves workability, finishability and pumpability of plastic concrete. Slag cement is a hydraulic cement formed when granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is ground to suitable fineness and is used to replace a portion of portland cement. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating approximately one ton of carbon dioxide for each ton of portland cement replaced. Also, concrete with coarse slag aggregate is more resistant to high temperatures; that is, this concrete has more residual compressive strength than conventional concrete. Generally, high replacement rates are required (50 to 80%) to meet low heat of hydration requirements for mass applications. Slag is a by-product from steel plants, which is obtained from blast furnaces, during the separation of iron from iron ore. It has classified slag cement as a "recovered" product under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and has issued a procurement guideline requiring its specification on most federally-funded projects. With the use of the ball mill, the granular slag can be processed into ultrafine slag powder. It is easy to process which enables the road can be opened to traffic immediately after the end of the work, and road compaction base can continue to be carried out even on rainy days, which is widely praised. For more information, see, , "Reducing Thermal Stress in Mass Concrete", , "Suggested Specifications for Slag Cement in Concrete.". As a road structure, it has the advantage with its hydraulic property that will not cause strength loss due to seepage under traffic loading. Air cooled blast furnace slag, results when molten slag from a blast furnace slag cools slowly by ambient air (as opposed to rapid quenching), and is processed through a screening and crushing plant for use principally as a construction aggregate. The condition is prolonged with extended moist curing, or on formed surfaces, especially when the form is left on for extended periods. For more information, see, ASR occurs when the alkalis in portland cement react with certain reactive aggregates to form an expansive gel that causes the concrete to crack, swell and prematurely deteriorate. Pelletized or expanded slag results when molten slag is quickly cooled using water or steam. Molten slag is tapped from a blast furnace, rapidly quenched with water ("granulated"), dried and ground to a fine powder. Mass applications use between 50 and 80 percent slag cement, with the thickest, most massive placements normally in the 65 to 80 percent range. Slag cement proportions of 40 to 50% normally optimize strength. A Portland cement mixed with a designated amount of ground granulated blast-furnace slag. It reduces the impact on the environment, preserves the precious natural resources needed to sustain the ecosystem, and can reduce the energy consumed in mining, crushed rock and other activities. Today, in the European cement regulations, there are fourteen types of cement containing blast furnace slag [4]. When used as part of a portland cement concrete, slag reacts with both the water (latent hydraulic reaction) and the hydrated cement paste (pozzolanic reaction), resulting in a … In addition to being used as the base material, it is also used as aggregate for asphalt mixture due to its excellent hardness and wear resistance. In virtually every case where concrete is exposed to air, the greening will disappear and the concrete will be lighter that concrete made with other cementitious materials (see related FAQ on concrete color and article on Canadian Embassy, where greening occured, then disappeared). Reducing energy consumption, since a ton of slag cement requires nearly 90% less energy to produce than a ton of portland cement. What Are the Uses of Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). Reducing the amount of virgin material extracted to make concrete. The additional CSH formed and denser cement paste in slag cement concrete reduce pore size and lower concrete permeability, often by several orders of magnitude. Using granulated blast furnace slag can save energy by 20-40%, reduce costs by 10-30%, and reduce CO2 emissions by 44%. At this point, the particle size of slag is mostly <5mm. Use of Blast Furnace Slag in Road Construction 23. A crystal structure will form, resulting in hard, lump slag. Using higher levels of slag cement in precast, provides the additional benefits of a more flowable mixture with smoother surface finish (fewer bugholes), and a whiter concrete appearance, often favored by designers and architects. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) [Quora] Chemical Composition of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag. It is called almighty engineering aggregate. Concretes made with slag cement will generally exhibit higher flexural strength for a given level of compressive strength. However, Recent years have seen the supply and acceptance of slag cement grow dramatically throughout the U.S. Slag cement improves many of the strength and durability properties of hardened concrete. More information can be found in SCA's SCIC #10 and in a "Problem Clinic" discussion in Concrete Producer magazine. Cement / Concrete. The pavilion is the largest, most advanced children’s outpatient facility in the region. Slag Cement The blast furnace slag cement is used in the world in order to increase the strength of the concrete and reduce the costs. Slag Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) is produced by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water, to produce a granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder. Today, the main by-product of hot metal production in blast furnaces is granulated blast furnace slag (GBS, see statistics).After grinding to cement fineness (GGBS = ground granulated blast furnace slag) it is used as a main constituent of cement or as a separate concrete addition. typically use between 25 and 50% slag cement. Make this into a paste, apply and leave for a few minutes, wash off thoroughly, and let it take effect. The output of the ball mill is 6.5 t/h, reaching the average hourly output with the comprehensive power consumption per unit 71 kW.h /t. The Additionally, the improved reflectivity may reduce lighting requirements for streets or parking facilities, and certainly improves safety with brighter streetscapes at night. 3-5), also called slag cement, is made from iron blast-furnace slag; it is a nonmetallic hydraulic cement consisting essentially of sili-cates and aluminosilicates of calcium developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. The residence time of the material in the ball mill can be prolonged, which is conducive to the product fineness reaching the standard. Slag cement (also called ground granulated blast furnace slag) is a hydraulic cement produced during the reduction of iron ore to iron in a blast furnace. About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. The latent hydraulic property of the blast-furnace slag gives excellent long-term strength. The heart of the process is the blast furnace that refines iron ore into iron. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. Used as a coarse aggregate in concrete, blast furnace slag reduces concrete workability but increases compressive strength, while the splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are similar to those of conventional concrete [49]. In addition, its hydraulic property makes it hydrate and solidify over time, resulting in high resistance to liquefaction during earthquakes. During the molten cooling and hardening of blast furnace slag, different cooling methods can be adopted to form various types of blast furnace slag products. The length of the first bin can be shortened to 2.6m and the second increased to 3.9m to enhance the grinding capacity of the ball mill. Hiraskar and Chetan Patil Abstract-The Iron industries produce a huge quantity of blast furnace slag as by–product, which is a non–biodegradable waste material from that only a small percentage of it is used by cement industries to manufacture cement. 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